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Part of a series on the
History of Ethiopia
Early history
Prehistory
Antiquity to 1st century BC
Aksum to 10th century AD
Middle Ages
Prehistory
Antiquity to 1st century BC
Aksum to 10th century AD
Zagwe dynasty to 1268
Early Solomonic period 1270–1529
Early modern history
Ethiopian–Adal War 1527–1543
Great Oromo migration 1543 – 17th century
Habesh Eyalet 1557 – 17th century
Early Gondar period 1632–1769
Aussa Sultanate 1734–1974
Zemene Mesafint 1769–1855
Modern history
Unification 1855–1913
First Italo–Ethiopian War 1895–1896
Pre-Italian Modernization 1913–1936
Second Italo–Ethiopian War 1935–1936
Italian East Africa 1936–1941
East African Campaign 1941
Italian guerrilla war 1941–1943
Post-Italian Modernization 1941–1974
Federation with Eritrea 1952–1962
Eritrean Independence 1961–1991
Ethiopian Civil War 1974–1991
Recent history
Ethiopian general election 2005
Ogaden conflict 2007–2008
War in Somalia 2006–2009
Topics
  • Military
  • Aristocracy
  • Currency (Aksumite)
  • Emperor
  • Ethiopia portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
  • Timeline[edit]

    Prehistory[edit]

    Bronze Age contacts with Egypt[edit]

    Antiquity[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Dʿmt[edit]

    Axum[edit]

    Middle Ages[edit]

    Zagwe dynasty[edit]

    Foreign Relations[edit]

    Early Solomonic period (1270–1529)[edit]

    Portuguese influence[edit]

    The Abyssinian-Adal War (1529–1543)[edit]

    Oromo Movements[edit]

    Oromo migrations

    Gondarine Period[edit]

    Early Gondar period (1632–1769)[edit]

    Aussa Sultanate[edit]

    Zemene Mesafint[edit]

    This era was, on one hand, a religious conflict between settling Muslims and traditional Christians, between nationalities they represented, and on the other hand between feudal lords on power over the central government.

    Mikael Sehul had compromised the power of the Emperor, and from this point forward it lay ever more openly in the hands of the great nobles and military commanders. This point of time has been regarded as one start of the Era of the Princes.

    Modern[edit]

    1855–1936[edit]

    Tewodros II and Tekle Giyorgis II (1855–1872)[edit]

    In early 1868, the British force seeking Tewodros’ surrender, after he refused to release imprisoned British subjects, arrived on the coast of Massawa. The British and Dajazmach Kassa came to an agreement in which Kassa would let the British pass through Tigray (the British were going to Magdala which Tewodros had made his capital) in exchange for money and weapons. Surely enough, when the British completed their mission and were leaving the country, they rewarded Kassa for his cooperation with artillery, muskets, rifles, and munitions, all in all worth approximately £500,000 (Marcus 2002, pp. 71–72). This formidable gift came in handy when in July 1871 the current emperor, Emperor Tekle Giyorgis II, attacked Kassa at his capital in Adwa, for Kassa had refused to be named a ras or pay tribute (Marcus, H. 2002, 72). Although Kassa's army was outnumbered 12,000 to the emperor's 60,000, Kassa's army was equipped with more modern weapons and better trained. At battle's end, forty percent of the emperor's men had been captured. The emperor was imprisoned and would die a year later. Six months later on 21 January 1872, Kassa became the new emperor under the name Yohannes IV (Zewde, B. 2001, 43).

    Yohannes IV (1872–1889)[edit]

    Menelik II (1889–1913)[edit]

    Iyasu V, Zauditu and Haile Selassie (1913–1936)[edit]

    Italian period (1936–1941)[edit]

    World War II[edit]

    Post–World War II period (1941–1974)[edit]

    Communist period (1974–1991)[edit]

    Federal Democratic Republic (1991–present)[edit]

    Eritrea separated from Ethiopia following the fall of the Derg in 1991, after a long independentist war.

    See also[edit]

  • Rulers of Ethiopia
  • Emperor of Ethiopia
  • List of Emperors of Ethiopia
  • Emperors family tree
  • List of heads of government of Ethiopia
  • List of Presidents of Ethiopia
  • Timeline of Addis Ababa
  • Politics of Ethiopia
  • Italians of Ethiopia
  • Kingdom of Jimma
  • Subdivisions of Ethiopia
  • List of human evolution fossils
  • People of Ethiopia
  • Political history of Eastern Africa
  • History of Africa
  • References[edit]

    Videography[edit]

    • Adwa: an African victory, Haïlé Gerima, US, 1999, Mypheduh Films, 97 min
    • Fascist Legacy, Ken Kirby, Royaume-Uni, 1989, documentary 2x50min Fascist Legacy on YouTube

    Historical documents[edit]

    • d'Abaddie, Arnauld Michel (1815–1894?), Douze ans de séjour dans la Haute-Éthiopie, Tome Ier, Paris, 1868
    • Alvares, Francisco in: Giovanni Battista Ramusio Historiale description de l'Ethiopie, contenant vraye relation des terres, & pais du grand Roy & Empereur Prete-Ian, l'assiette de ses royaumes & provinces, leurs coutumes, loix & religion, avec les pourtraits de leur temples & autres singularitez, cy devant non cogneues, Anvers, Omnisys, 1558, BNF
    • Blanc, Henri (1831–1911), Ma captivité en Abyssinie sous l'empereur Théodoros – avec des détails sur l'Empereur Theodros, sa vie, ses mœurs, son peuple, son pays, traduit de l'anglais par Madame Arbousse-Bastide.
    • Bruce, James, Jean-Henri Castéra, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, Pierre Plassan, Voyage en Nubie et en Abyssinie entrepris pour découvrir les sources du Nil, Paris, 1791
    • Budge, E. A. Wallis, The Queen of Sheba and her only son Menelik, London 1932.
    • Castanhoso, The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541–1543 as narrated by Castanhoso; translated and introduced by Whitrich (Archive.org)
    • Ferret, Pierre Victor Ad., Joseph Germain Galinier Voyage en Abyssinie dans les provinces du Tigré, du Samen et de l'Amhara, Paris, 1847
    • Giffre de Rechac, Jean de Les estranges evenemens du voyage de Son Altesse, le serenissime prince Zaga-Christ d'Ethiopie, Hachette, Paris, 1635, BNF
    • The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century
    • Reybaud, Louis Voyage dans l’Abyssinie méridionale, Revue des Deux Mondes, tome 27, Paris, 1841
    • (Amharic) Original letters from Ethiopian emperors, website of the national archives of Addis Abeba

    Articles[edit]

    • A Brief History of Trade and Business in Ethiopia from Ancient to Modern Times, Richard Pankhurst, 1999: set of 2 articles published in the Addis Tribune summarizing a speech by Dr. Pankhurst at the 74’th District Conference and Assembly of Rotary International, in Addis Ababa 7–9 May 1999
    • Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, Richard Pankhurst, 1999: set of 3 articles published in the Addis Tribune newspaper in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on the relations between Ethiopia and countries on the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times
    • A History of Early Twentieth Century Ethiopia, Richard Pankhurst, 1997: set of 20 articles published in the Addis Tribune summarizing the history of Ethiopia from the beginning of the 20th century until the 1960s
    • Pankhurst, Richard (1999). "History of Northern Ethiopia – and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea". Civic Webs Virtual Library. Retrieved March 25, 2005.  Article published in the Addis Tribune showing how Eritrea has historically been a part of Ethiopia
    • Mauri, Arnaldo (2003), "The early development of banking in Ethiopia", International Review of Economics, ISSN 1865-1704, Vol. 50, n. 4, pp. 521–543. Abstract
    • Mauri, Arnaldo (2009), "The re-establishment of the national monetary and banking system in Ethiopia, 1941–1963", South African Journal of Economic History, ISSN 1011-3436, Vol. 24, n. 2, pp. 82–130.
    • Mauri, Arnaldo (2010), "Monetary developments and decolonization in Ethiopia", Acta Universitatis Danubius Œconomica, ISSN 2065-0175, Vol. 6, n. 1, pp. 5–16. [2] and [3]

    Further reading[edit]

    • African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
    • Antonicelli, Franco (1961). Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 – 1945. Torino: Mondadori. 
    • Bahru Zewde (2001). A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855–1974 (2nd ed.). Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 978-0-852-55786-0. 
    • Bernand, Étienne; Drewes, Abraham Johannes; Schneider, Roger; Anfray, Francis (1991). Recueil des inscriptions de l'Ethiopie des périodes pré-axoumite et axoumite. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, De Boccard. ASIN B0000EAFWP. 
    • Del Boca, Angelo (1985). Italiani in Africa Orientale: La conquista dell'Impero. Roma: Laterza. ISBN 88-420-2715-4. 
    • Gibbons, Ann (2007). The First Human : The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
    • Henze, Paul B. (2000). A History of Ethiopia. Layers of Time. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-393-3. 
    • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate (2009). Lucy's Legacy : The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
    • Marcus, Harold (1994). A History of Ethiopia. Berkeley.
    • Markakis, John; Nega Ayele (1978). Class and Revolution in Ethiopia. Addis Abeba: Shama Books. ISBN 99944-0-008-8. 
    • Munro-Hay, Stuart (1992). Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0209-7. 
    • Pankhurst, Richard (2001). The Ethiopians: A History (Peoples of Africa). Wiley-Blackwell; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-631-22493-9. 
    • Pankhurst, Richard (2005). Historic images of Ethiopia. Addis Abeba: Shama books. ISBN 99944-0-015-0. 
    • Phillipson, David W. (2003). Aksum: an archaeological introduction and guide. Nairobi: The British Institute in Eastern Africa. ISBN 1-872566-19-7. 
    • Sergew Hable Selassie (1972). Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270. Addis Ababa: United Printers.
    • Taddesse Tamrat (2009). Church and State in Ethiopia, 1270–1527. Hollywood, CA: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors, second printing with new preface and new foreword.
    • Vestal, Theodor M. (2007). "Consequences of the British occupation of Ethiopia during World War II", B.J. Ward (ed), Rediscovering the British Empire. Melbourne.
    • Young, John (1993). Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia: The Tigray People's Liberation Front, 1975–1991. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59198-8. 

    External links[edit]

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Ethiopia.
    • Ethiopian warrior, Ancient Greek Alabastron, 480-470 BC
    • ETHIOPIA – A Country Study (at the Library of Congress)
    • Fighting Hunger and poverty in Ethiopia (Peter Middlebrook)
    • "The history of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia" (Hartford Web Publishing website)

     

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Ethiopia






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